BK Virus (BKV) is an important cause of Interstitial nephritis and associated Nephropathy in recipients of kidney transplants. Upto 5% of renal allograft recipients can be affected by BKV about 40 weeks post transplantation. Presence of BKV DNA in plasma reflects the dynamics of the disease – conversion of plasma from negative to positive for BKV DNA post transplantation , persistence of Nephropathy and reduction in BKV DNA levels after initiating Immunosuppressive therapy. BKV DNA is detectable in urine prior to plasma and hence serves as an indication of impending BKV nephropathy. Viral Loads >100,000 copies / mL in urine also indicate a risk for BKV Nephropathy.